Archive for February, 2010

Flexibility of Food Patterns for Varied Food Preferences

Thursday, February 11th, 2010

The USDA Food Guide and the DASH Eating Plan are flexible to permit food choices based on individual and cultural food preferences, cost, and availability. Both can also accommodate varied types of cuisines and special needs due to common food allergies.  Two adaptations of the USDA Food Guide and the DASH Eating Plan are:

Vegetarian Choices

Vegetarians of all types can achieve recommended nutrient intakes through careful selection of foods.

These individuals should give special attention to their intakes of protein, iron, and vitamin B12, as well as calcium and vitamin D if avoiding milk products.

In addition, vegetarians could select only nuts, seeds, and legumes from the meat and beans group, or they could include eggs if so desired.

At the 2,000-calorie level, they could choose about 1.5 ounces of nuts and 2/3 cup legumes instead of 5.5 ounces of meat, poultry, and/or fish. One egg, ½ ounce of nuts, or ¼ cup of legumes is considered equivalent to 1 ounce of meat, poultry, or fish in the USDA Food Guide.

Substitutions for Milk and Milk Products

Since milk and milk products provide more than 70 percent of the calcium consumed by Americans, guidance on other choices of dietary calcium is needed for those who do not consume the recommended amount of milk products.

Milk product consumption has been associated with overall diet quality and adequacy of intake of many nutrients, including calcium, potassium, magnesium, zinc, iron, riboflavin, vitamin A, folate, and vitamin D.

People may avoid milk products because of allergies, cultural practices, taste, or other reasons. Those who avoid all milk products need to choose rich sources of the nutrients provided by milk, including potassium, vitamin A, and magnesium in addition to calcium and vitamin D.


Those who avoid milk because of its lactose content may obtain all the nutrients provided by the milk group by using lactose-reduced or low-lactose milk products, taking small servings of milk several times a day, taking the enzyme lactase before consuming milk products, or eating other calcium-rich foods.

Some vegetarian calcium enriched foods include, soya products  like tofu, & soya milk. Vegetables, like spinach, kale,  several kinds of nuts, artichokes,oats, bulgur and some cereals also contain calcium.


Estimated amounts of calories needed

Thursday, February 11th, 2010

This guideline from the USDA website explains how to estimate the number of calories that we need.

Estimated amounts of calories needed to maintain energy balance for various gender and age groups at three different levels of physical activity. The estimates are rounded to the nearest 200 calories and were determined using the Institute of Medicine equation.

Activity Level b,c,d

Gender

Age (years)

Sedentaryb

Moderately Activec

Actived

Child

2-3

1,000

1,000-1,400e

1,000-1,400e

Female

4-8
9-13
14-18
19-30
31-50
51+

1,200
1,600
1,800
2,000
1,800
1,600

1,400-1,600
1,600-2,000
2,000
2,000-2,200
2,000
1,800

1,400-1,800
1,800-2,200
2,400
2,400
2,200
2,000-2,200

Male

4-8
9-13
14-18
19-30
31-50
51+

1,400

1,800
2,200
2,400
2,200
2,000

1,400-1,600

1,800-2,200
2,400-2,800
2,600-2,800
2,400-2,600
2,200-2,400

1,600-2,000

2,000-2,600
2,800-3,200
3,000
2,800-3,000
2,400-2,800

a These levels are based on Estimated Energy Requirements (EER) from the Institute of Medicine Dietary Reference Intakes macronutrients report, 2002, calculated by gender, age, and activity level for reference-sized individuals. “Reference size,” as determined by IOM, is based on median height and weight for ages up to age 18 years of age and median height and weight for that height to give a BMI of 21.5 for adult females and 22.5 for adult males.

b Sedentary means a lifestyle that includes only the light physical activity associated with typical day-to-day life.

National Kidney Foundation: A to Z Health Guide Item

Wednesday, February 10th, 2010

National Kidney Foundation: A to Z Health Guide Item

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